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- IBD: See Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
- IBD: See Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
- Idiopathic: No obvious cause.
- IES: See International Eosinophil Society.
- IL: See Interleukin.
- Ileo-Cecal Valve: A muscle valve at the connection point between the large and small intestines.
- Ileostomy: A surgically created hole in the abdomen in which a part of the small intestine is brought through to the skin surface. A bag must be worn over the hole to collect bowel movements. A temporary ileostomy may be needed to allow some bowel tissue to heal after chronic inflammation has been treated.
- Ileum: The last part of the small intestine, it connects the jejunum with the large intestine.
- Ileus: A temporary lack of sufficient peristalsis in the intestines. Surgery, intestinal obstruction, infections, and other problems may be the cause. Symptoms typically include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, lack of bowel movements and no passing gas.
- Immunoglobulin Antibodies: (See also Antibody) Produced by the body’s immune system, and attach to foreign substances so the immune system can destroy them. They may attach to bacteria, viruses, fungi, cancer cells, and animal dander. There are 5 major types of antibodies. IgA Antibodies are found on mucosal surfaces such as the GI tract, airway, nose, mouth and in body fluids such as tears and saliva. IgE is the allergy antibody. IgG, IgM, and IgD are the other immunoglobulin types.
IgD Antibodies are the first surface antibody produced by B cells
IgE Antibodies are involved in allergic reactions.
IgG Antibodies are found in all body fluids and are important for fighting bacterial and viral infections.
IgM Antibodies are the largest sized antibodies and are found in blood and lymph fluid. They are the first to fight infection.
- Immunologist: A professional specialist on the study of the immune system physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases involving the immune system. Some Immunologists are also called Environmental Medicine.
- Immunomodulator: A type of therapy that modifies the immune system to achieve disease control. Such medications are typically used in treating autoimmune diseases, cancer and organ transplant rejection.
- Indigestion: An uncomfortable feeling that occurs during or after eating.
- Inflammation: Swelling of a tissue. It is part of the body’s response to tissue injury, irritation or damage. It is the body’s attempt at self-protection, and this response leads to repair of the damaged tissue.
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive system. Two major types of IBD are identified: Crohn's Disease, which can involve the entire gastrointestinal tract, and Ulcerative Colitis, which involves only the colon.
- Institutional Review Board: A group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects in accordance with FDA regulations.
- Interleukin (IL): One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body that regulate immune responses.
- International Eosinophil Society: An organization of scientists and clinicians interested in the eosinophil.
- Intolerance (Dietary): A non-allergic reaction in response to the ingestion of dietary substances.
- Intramucosal: Situated or occurring within a mucous membrane.
- Intussusception Telescoping: The protrusion or folding of one segment of the intestine into another segment of the intestine.
- IRB: See Institutional Review Board.
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Also called "spastic colon." A disorder in which constipation and/or diarrhea or alternating between the two seems to occur frequently. Inflammation is not part of IBS. It is unknown what causes IBS, but it may be triggered by stress, infection and possibly immune responses to food. There is no known cure.