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CEGIR Publications

Enhancing diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease research: the consortium for eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease researchers' journey. Chehade M, Furuta G, Klion A, Abonia JP, Aceves S, Bose P, Collins MH, Davis C, Dellon ES, Eickel G, Falk G, Gupta S, Hiremath G, Howard A, Jensen ET, Kesh S, Khoury P, Kocher K, Kodroff E, Kyle S, Mak N, McCoy D, Mehta P, Menard-Katcher P, Mukkada V, Paliana A, Rothenberg M, Sable K, Schmitt C, Scott M, Spergel J, Strobel MJ, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Zicarelli A, Muir AB, Wright BL, Bailey DD. Ther Adv Rare Dis. 2023 Aug 14;4:26330040231180895. doi: 10.1177/26330040231180895. PMID: 37588777; PMCID: PMC10426297

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a group of chronic immune system disorders in which inflammation causes difficulties in daily life and the buildup of a type of white blood cell (eosinophils) in the gastrointestinal tract, which can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction.

To address systemic bias in patient care and research in EGIDs, the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR) recently formed a diversity committee. The CEGIR diversity committee has defined its purpose through mission and vision statements. The committee has also developed structured educational and research initiatives to enhance diversity, equity, inclusivity, and accessibility (DEIA) in all CEGIR activities.

In this review article, researchers share the process of forming the diversity committee, highlighting milestones achieved and summarizing future directions. Authors hope that this report will serve as a guide and an inspiration for other researchers to enhance DEIA in their fields.

Mucosal Microbiota Associated With Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Eosinophilic Gastritis. Furuta GT, Fillon SA, Williamson KM, Robertson CE, Stevens MJ, Aceves SS, Arva NC, Chehade M, Collins MH, Davis CM, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Khoury P, Leung J, Martin LJ, Menard-Katcher P, Mukkada VA, Peterson K, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Rothenberg ME, Harris JK. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2023 Mar 1;76(3):347-354. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003685. Epub 2022 Dec 16. PMID: 36525669.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastritis (EoG) are disorders in which eosinophils (white blood cells) of the immune system build up as a reaction to foods or allergens, causing tissue damage. This immune response occurs in the esophagus in EoE and in the stomach in EoG. To better understand the association of gut microbiota (microorganisms in the digestive tract) with EoE and EoG, multicenter studies with large patient cohorts are needed.

In this study, researchers identified the mucosal microbiota associated with EoE and EoG in a geographically diverse cohort of patients. The team collected and analyzed clinical data, mucosal biopsies, and stool of pediatric and adult individuals with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) from 10 clinical sites within the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers.

Not surprisingly, microbiome samples collected in the esophagus and stomach were not similar to those collected in the stool, thus emphasizing the importance of site-specific capture of data. Taxa associated with EGIDs varied highly among individuals. Authors note that further research is needed to determine if therapeutic interventions contribute to these differences.

The role of biologics in pediatric food allergy and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Sindher SB, Barshow S, Tirumalasetty J, Arasi S, Atkins D, Bauer M, Bégin P, Collins MH, Deschildre A, Doyle AD, Fiocchi A, Furuta GT, Garcia-Lloret M, Mennini M, Rothenberg ME, Spergel JM, Wang J, Wood RA, Wright BL, Zuberbier T, Chin AR, Long A, Nadeau KC, Chinthrajah RS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2023 Mar;151(3):595-606. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.01.007. PMID: 36872039; PMCID: PMC9993424.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a group of chronic immune system disorders in which a type of white blood cell (eosinophils) build up in the gastrointestinal tract, causing inflammation or injury. EGIDs and food allergy (FA) share similar inflammatory mechanisms. Because of this, many of the same biologics (medications developed from biological sources) are being investigated to target these mechanisms in both EGIDs and FA.

In this review article, a team of researchers led by CEGIR scholars discuss the enormous potential of biologics for the treatment of EGIDs and FA in pediatric patients. Discussion includes past and current research into the use of biologics in FA and EGIDs, as well as their potential role in improving treatment options in the future. Authors also note the need for wider availability of biologics for clinical use.

2021 year in review: Spotlight on eosinophils. Dunn JLM, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Feb;149(2):517-524. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.11.012. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

A Clinical Severity Index for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Development, Consensus, and Future Directions. Dellon ES, Khoury P, Muir AB, Liacouras CA, Safroneeva E, Atkins D, Collins MH, Gonsalves N, Falk GW, Spergel JM, Hirano I, Chehade M, Schoepfer AM, Menard-Katcher C, Katzka DA, Bonis PA, Bredenoord AJ, Geng B, Jensen ET, Pesek RD, Feuerstadt P, Gupta SK, Lucendo AJ, Genta RM, Hiremath G, McGowan EC, Moawad FJ, Peterson KA, Rothenberg ME, Straumann A, Furuta GT, Aceves SS. Gastroenterology. 2022 Jul;163(1):59-76. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2022.03.025. Epub 2022 May 20. PMID: 35606197; PMCID: PMC9233087.

For patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disease that damages the esophagus, therapeutic options and management are dictated by disease severity. However, the process for determining severity varies among practitioners. Reducing this variability could help improve clinicians’ ability to monitor EoE in an office setting. In this study, researchers aimed to create an international consensus severity scoring index for EoE. First, a group of adult and pediatric EoE researchers and clinicians—as well as non-EoE allergy immunology and gastroenterology experts—reviewed existing literature on EoE in the context of progression and severity. Next, a steering committee reached consensus on important features of severity. These features were then distilled to categorize patients with EoE as having inactive, mild, moderate, or severe disease. This new simplified scoring system, called the Index of Severity for Eosinophilic Esophagitis (I-SEE), can be completed at routine clinic visits. The system can help guide practitioners in EoE management by standardizing features of disease severity beyond eosinophil counts. To increase its utilization and functionality, authors note that I-SEE should be validated and refined using data from future clinical trials and routine clinical practice.

A survey examining the impact of COVID-19 on food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Trogen B, Jin H, Cianferoni A, Chehade M, Schultz F, Chavez A, Warren C, Nowak-Wegrzyn AH. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Jan;10(1):312-314.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.10.053. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

CD73(+) Epithelial Progenitor Cells That Contribute to Homeostasis and Renewal Are Depleted in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hara T, Kasagi Y, Wang J, Sasaki M, Aaron B, Karami A, Shimonosono M, Shimonosono R, Maekawa H, Dolinsky L, Wilkins B, Klein J, Wei J, Nunes K, Lynch K, Spergel JM, Hamilton KE, Ruffner MA, Karakasheva TA, Whelan KA, Nakagawa H, Muir AB. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022;13(5):1449-1467. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.01.018. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis variants by clinical, histological, and molecular analyses: A cross-sectional multi-center study. Greuter T, Straumann A, Fernandez-Marrero Y, Germic N, Hosseini A, Yousefi S, Simon D, Collins MH, Bussmann C, Chehade M, Dellon ES, Furuta GT, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, Moawad FJ, Biedermann L, Safroneeva E, Schoepfer AM, Simon HU. Allergy. 2022 Aug;77(8):2520-2533. doi: 10.1111/all.15233. Epub 2022 Feb 17. PMID: 35094416.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic condition characterized by inflammation in the esophagus that causes a range of symptoms. Patients can have symptoms of esophageal dysfunction without meeting the classical diagnostic criteria. To characterize and classify the range of variants, an international team of researchers studied 69 patients with EoE variants. They identified and described three histological subtypes. Study authors concluded that EoE variants appear to be part of a disease spectrum, with classical EoE as the most common and apparent phenotype.

Close follow-up is associated with fewer stricture formation and results in earlier detection of histological relapse in the long-term management of eosinophilic esophagitis. Bon L, Safroneeva E, Bussmann C, Biedermann L, Schreiner P, Vavricka SR, Schoepfer AM, McCright-Gill T, Simon HU, Straumann A, Chehade M, Greuter T. United European Gastroenterol J. 2022 Apr;10(3):308-318. doi: 10.1002/ueg2.12216. Epub 2022 Apr 5. PMID: 35384368.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by immune cells called eosinophils building up in the esophagus, which may cause polyps, tissue break down, inflammation, and ulcers. The follow-up schedule for maintenance treatment of EoE varies, possibly due to a lack of a recommended schedule. In this study, researchers analyzed "close follow-up" (less than 18 months between maintenance visits) and "non-close follow-up" (greater than or equal to 18 months between maintenance visits) for steroid treatment of EoE. They found that close follow-up was associated with less stricture formation (abnormal narrowing) and earlier detection of EoE relapse by histology. Authors note that regular assessment of EoE disease activity (every 12-18 months) may be beneficial in detecting relapsing disease as early as possible, therefore potentially minimizing the risk for EoE complications.

Determination of Biopsy Yield That Optimally Detects Eosinophilic Gastritis and/or Duodenitis in a Randomized Trial of Lirentelimab. Dellon ES, Gonsalves N, Rothenberg ME, Hirano I, Chehade M, Peterson KA, Falk GW, Murray JA, Gehman LT, Chang AT, Singh B, Rasmussen HS, Genta RM. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Mar;20(3):535-545.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2021.05.053. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Development and Validation of Web-Based Tool to Predict Lamina Propria Fibrosis in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hiremath G, Sun L, Correa H, Acra S, Collins MH, Bonis P, Arva NC, Capocelli KE, Falk GW, King E, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Mukkada VA, Martin LJ, Putnam PE, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Aceves SS, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME, Koyama T, Dellon ES. Am J Gastroenterol. 2022 Feb 1;117(2):272-279. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001587.

Development of a core outcome set for therapeutic studies in eosinophilic esophagitis (COREOS). COREOS Collaborators:, Ma C, Schoepfer AM, Dellon ES, Bredenoord AJ, Chehade M, Collins MH, Feagan BG, Furuta GT, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Jairath V, Katzka DA, Pai RK, Rothenberg ME, Straumann A, Aceves SS, Alexander JA, Arva NC, Atkins D, Biedermann L, Blanchard C, Cianferoni A, Ciriza de Los Rios C, Clayton F, Davis CM, de Bortoli N, Dias JA, Falk GW, Genta RM, Ghaffari G, Gonsalves N, Greuter T, Hopp R, Hsu Blatman KS, Jensen ET, Johnston D, Kagalwalla AF, Larsson HM, Leung J, Louis H, Masterson JC, Menard-Katcher C, Menard-Katcher PA, Moawad FJ, Muir AB, Mukkada VA, Penagini R, Pesek RD, Peterson K, Putnam PE, Ravelli A, Savarino EV, Schlag C, Schreiner P, Simon D, Smyrk TC, Spergel JM, Taft TH, Terreehorst I, Vanuytsel T, Venter C, Vieira MC, Vieth M, Vlieg-Boerstra B, von Arnim U, Walker MM, Wechsler JB, Woodland P, Woosley JT, Yang GY, Zevit N, Safroneeva E. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Feb;149(2):659-670. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.07.001. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Diagnostic merits of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel from a single esophageal biopsy. Min S, Shoda T, Wen T, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Feb;149(2):782-787.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.07.032. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients Are Not at Increased Risk of Severe COVID-19: A Report From a Global Registry. Zevit N, Chehade M, Leung J, Marderfeld L, Dellon ES. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Jan;10(1):143-149.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.10.019. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases make a name for themselves: A new consensus statement with updated nomenclature. Wright BL, Schwartz JT, Ruffner MA, Furuta GT, Gonsalves N, Dellon ES, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Aug;150(2):291-293. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.05.012. Epub 2022 May 29. PMID: 35649464; PMCID: PMC9378528.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a group of chronic immune system disorders in which a type of white blood cell (eosinophils) build up in the gastrointestinal tract, causing inflammation or injury. Consensus recommendations have been developed for diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), the most common EGID. However, there are currently no consensus guidelines for diagnosis of non-EoE EGIDs. Standardization of EGID terminology is one of the first priorities for developing these guidelines. In this study, a large group of researchers and clinicians aimed to reach international consensus for EGID nomenclature. The team used multiple rounds of surveys to develop a new tiered framework for EGID terms. Authors note that this revision of terms could advance both clinical care and research in EGIDs. Next steps include selection of specific disease markers and thresholds, definition of symptoms, exclusion of alternative diagnoses, and duration of disease.

Evaluating Eosinophilic Colitis as a Unique Disease using Colonic Molecular Profiles: A Multi-Site Study. Shoda T, Collins MH, Rochman M, Wen T, Caldwell JM, Mack LE, Osswald GA, Besse JA, Haberman Y, Aceves SS, Arva NC, Capocelli KE, Chehade M, Davis CM, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Khoury P, Klion A, Menard-Katcher C, Leung J, Mukkada V, Putnam PE, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Furuta GT, Denson LA, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases Researchers (CEGIR). Gastroenterology. 2022 Jan 24:S0016-5085(22)00038-5. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2022.01.022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35085569.

Eosinphilic colitis (EoC) has been a poorly understood condition with uncertainty whether it is a distinct disease or a manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Researchers from the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR) seeking to better understand the condition analyzed samples from more than 60 people treated at multiple medical centers v. controls to compare this rare disease to other conditions. They identified and analyzed 987 differentially expressed genes, established EoC transcriptomic profiles, identified mechanistic pathways, and compared findings with related conditions. They concluded that EoC is a distinct disease, establishing a basis for improved diagnosis and treatment.

Impressions and aspirations from the FDA GREAT VI Workshop on Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Beyond Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Perspectives for Progress in the Field. Rothenberg ME, Hottinger SKB, Gonsalves N, Furuta GT, Collins MH, Talley NJ, Peterson K, Menard-Katcher C, Smith M, Hirano I, Genta RM, Chehade M, Gupta SK, Spergel JM, Aceves SS, Dellon ES. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Mar;149(3):844-853. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.12.768. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

International Consensus Recommendations for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Nomenclature. Dellon ES, Gonsalves N, Abonia JP, Alexander JA, Arva NC, Atkins D, Attwood SE, Auth MKH, Bailey DD, Biederman L, Blanchard C, Bonis PA, Bose P, Bredenoord AJ, Chang JW, Chehade M, Collins MH, Di Lorenzo C, Dias JA, Dohil R, Dupont C, Falk GW, Ferreira CT, Fox AT, Genta RM, Greuter T, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Hiremath GS, Horsley-Silva JL, Ishihara S, Ishimura N, Jensen ET, Gutiérrez-Junquera C, Katzka DA, Khoury P, Kinoshita Y, Kliewer KL, Koletzko S, Leung J, Liacouras CA, Lucendo AJ, Martin LJ, McGowan EC, Menard-Katcher C, Metz DC, Miller TL, Moawad FJ, Muir AB, Mukkada VA, Murch S, Nhu QM, Nomura I, Nurko S, Ohtsuka Y, Oliva S, Orel R, Papadopoulou A, Patel DA, Pesek RD, Peterson KA, Philpott H, Putnam PE, Richter JE, Rosen R, Ruffner MA, Safroneeva E, Schreiner P, Schoepfer A, Schroeder SR, Shah N, Souza RF, Spechler SJ, Spergel JM, Straumann A, Talley NJ, Thapar N, Vandenplas Y, Venkatesh RD, Vieira MC, von Arnim U, Walker MM, Wechsler JB, Wershil BK, Wright BL, Yamada Y, Yang GY, Zevit N, Rothenberg ME, Furuta GT, Aceves SS. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Feb 16:S1542-3565(22)00143-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2022.02.017. Online ahead of print.

Long-Lasting Dissociation of Esophageal Eosinophilia and Symptoms After Dilation in Adults With Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Safroneeva E, Pan Z, King E, Martin LJ, Collins MH, Yang GY, Capocelli KE, Arva NC, Abonia JP, Atkins D, Bonis PA, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Leung J, Menard-Katcher PA, Mukkada VA, Schoepfer AM, Spergel JM, Wershil BK, Rothenberg ME, Aceves SS, Furuta GT; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Apr;20(4):766-775.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2021.05.049. Epub 2021 May 29.

Prospective Endoscopic Activity Assessment for Eosinophilic Gastritis in a Multisite Cohort. Hirano I, Collins MH, King E, Sun Q, Chehade M, Abonia JP, Bonis PA, Capocelli KE, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Leung J, Katzka D, Menard-Katcher P, Khoury P, Klion A, Mukkada VA, Peterson K, Rudman-Spergel AK, Spergel JA, Yang GY, Rothenberg ME, Aceves SS, Furuta GT. Am J Gastroenterol. 2022 Jan 20. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001625. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35080202.

Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the stomach that occurs when certain white blood cells known as eosinophils gather in large numbers in the stomach, causing injury and irritation. In this study, researchers aimed to better understand the endoscopic manifestations of EG and develop a standardized instrument for investigations. Using data prospectively collected as part of CEGIR, the team evaluated endoscopic features of children and adults with EG recorded with the EG Endoscopic Reference System (EG-REFS). Researchers identified a strong correlation between EG-REFS scores and physician global assessment of endoscopy severity. EG-REFS severity was significantly correlated with active histology and a tendency for the gastric antrum (lower portion of the stomach). The authors note that further development of EG-REFS should improve its utility in clinical studies.

Provider Beliefs, Practices, and Perceived Barriers to Dietary Elimination Therapy in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Chang JW, Kliewer K, Katzka DA, Peterson KA, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Furuta GT, Dellon ES. Am J Gastroenterol. 2022 Dec 1;117(12):2071-2074. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001988. Epub 2022 Sep 1. PMID: 36066475; PMCID: PMC9722505.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder in which eosinophils (white blood cells of the immune system) build up in the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach), causing tissue damage. This immune response can occur as a reaction to certain foods. Although effective dietary treatments are often available, physicians tend to prefer medications. In this study, researchers assessed providers’ perceptions of EoE dietary therapy, including effectiveness, practice patterns, and barriers. The team collected this data through a web-based survey of providers. Results show that providers view diet as the least effective treatment for EoE. Barriers to treatment include the belief that patients are disinterested and unlikely to adhere. In addition, providers indicated that with less access to dietitians, nonacademic providers often manage diets without dietitian guidance. As patients are often highly accepting of diets and multiple treatment options for EoE, authors state that clinicians need evidence-based knowledge on EoE diets, access to dietitians, and awareness of patient preferences.

Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in households with children with asthma and allergy: A prospective surveillance study. Seibold MA, Moore CM, Everman JL, Williams BJM, Nolin JD, Fairbanks-Mahnke A, Plender EG, Patel BB, Arbes SJ, Bacharier LB, Bendixsen CG, Calatroni A, Camargo CA Jr, Dupont WD, Furuta GT, Gebretsadik T, Gruchalla RS, Gupta RS, Khurana Hershey GK, Murrison LB, Jackson DJ, Johnson CC, Kattan M, Liu AH, Lussier SJ, O'Connor GT, Rivera-Spoljaric K, Phipatanakul W, Rothenberg ME, Seroogy CM, Teach SJ, Zoratti EM, Togias A, Fulkerson PC, Hartert TV; HEROS study team. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Aug;150(2):302-311. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.05.014. Epub 2022 Jun 1. PMID: 35660376; PMCID: PMC9155183.

Children and people with asthma or other allergic diseases are typically known as high-risk groups for many respiratory viruses. However, it is currently unknown whether these groups are at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, researchers aimed to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in households with children, as well as whether self-reported asthma or other allergic diseases are associated with infection and household transmission. Participants included allergic disease patients from the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR), which provided an accessible cohort for the study. For six months, the team collected biweekly nasal swabs and weekly surveys to calculate the probabilities of infection and transmission. Researchers then used regression analyses to determine associated risk factors. Results suggest that asthma does not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Food allergy was associated with lower infection risk, while body mass index was associated with increased infection risk. Authors note that understanding how these factors modify infection risk may offer new avenues for preventing infection.

What patients with eosinophilic esophagitis may not share with their providers: a qualitative assessment of online health communities. Chang JW, Chen VL, Rubenstein JH, Dellon ES, Wallner LP, De Vries R. Dis Esophagus. 2022 Jun 15;35(6):doab073. doi: 10.1093/dote/doab073. PMID: 34718475.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that damages the esophagus. Little is known about how patients with EoE experience their symptoms, receive care, and cope with their disease. Often, patients seek peer support from online communities. As an unfiltered source of patient perspectives, these communities can provide insights on unmet needs and barriers to care. In this study, researchers performed a qualitative analysis of electronic health forums to characterize patient-to-patient conversations about EoE symptoms and the experience of disease. The team analyzed a random sample of conversation threads from three publicly accessible electronic health forums hosting EoE communities. Results showed that patients with EoE interpret their disease as sporadic events and lack reliable sources of knowledge, which may influence how they prioritize treatment. Authors note that providers should equip themselves with evidence-based knowledge, engage in shared decision-making, and look outside of clinical settings in order to recognize barriers to disease management.

A Gut-Wrenching Case of Hypereosinophilia. Melethil S, Abonia JP. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Sep;9(9):3524-3525. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.05.039. PMID: 34507713.

In a case study of hypereosinophilia, an allergic inflammatory condition in which white blood cells called eosinophils are at high levels in the body, a pediatric patient had recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms and histology showing elevated eosinophils in biopsy specimens. After excluding secondary causes of gastrointestinal eosinophilia, the clinicians diagnosed the patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE). Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) and EGE are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders due to selective eosinophilic infiltration causing inflammation in the stomach and small intestine, in the absence of other secondary causes of eosinophilia. The exact incidence is unknown but is more commonly diagnosed in children younger than 5 years. In adults, the peak age of diagnosis is in the third decade of life. Authors say this case exemplifies two key points for healthcare providers: 1) Refer patients presenting with peripheral eosinophilia and recurrent or persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for evaluation for an intestinal biopsy and 2) Recognize that eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases can be diagnosed only after other secondary causes of eosinophilia like parasitic infections or drug-induced causes are ruled out.

A Single-Food Milk Elimination Diet Is Effective for Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children. Wechsler JB, Schwartz S, Arva NC, Kim KA, Chen L, Makhija M, Amsden K, Keeley K, Mohammed S, Dellon ES, Kagalwalla AF. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Apr 3:S1542-3565(21)00384-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2021.03.049. Online ahead of print.

Comorbid Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Pediatric Population. Moore H, Wechsler J, Frost C, Whiteside E, Baldassano R, Markowitz J, Muir AB. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2021 Mar 1;72(3):398-403. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003002.

Developing a standardized approach for assessing mast cells and eosinophils on tissue biopsies: A Work Group Report of the AAAAI Allergic Skin Diseases Committee. Zimmermann N, Abonia JP, Dreskin SC, Akin C, Bolton S, Happel CS, Geller M, Larenas-Linnemann D, Nanda A, Peterson K, Wasan A, Wechsler J, Zhang S, Bernstein JA. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Oct;148(4):964-983. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.06.030. Epub 2021 Aug 9. PMID: 34384610.

In human tissue biopsies, mast cells and eosinophils are commonly found. However, for several clinical conditions, there are knowledge gaps in determining diagnostic thresholds and how samples are processed, interpreted, and reported. These discrepancies can delay the correct diagnosis of a patient’s condition. A work group of pathology, allergy, dermatology, hematology/oncology, and gastroenterology stakeholders assembled to address this need. Together, the group developed a standardized approach for assessing mast cells and eosinophils in skin, gastrointestinal, and bone marrow pathologic specimens for the benefit of clinical practice and patients.

Diagnosis of Pediatric Non-Esophageal Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders by Eosinophil Peroxidase Immunohistochemistry. Hasan SH, Taylor S, Garg S, Buras MR, Doyle AD, Bauer CS, Wright BL, Schroeder S. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2021 Nov-Dec;24(6):513-522. doi: 10.1177/10935266211024552. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Distance to pediatric gastroenterology providers is associated with decreased diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis in rural populations. McGowan EC, Keller JP, Muir AB, Dellon ES, Peng R, Keet CA, Jensen ET. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Dec;9(12):4489-4492.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.08.034. Epub 2021 Sep 14. PMID: 34534720; PMCID: PMC8671202.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by immune cells called eosinophils building up in the esophagus, which may cause polyps, tissue break down, inflammation, and ulcers. In this cross-sectional study, researchers examined data from children enrolled in Medicaid 2012. They found that the apparent lower prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in rural communities was attenuated when adjusting for distance to provider. These results suggest that diagnostic disparities likely exist for eosinophilic esophagitis among children residing in rural areas.

Do rural health disparities affect prevalence data in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis?. Sabet C, Klion AD, Bailey D, Jensen E, Chehade M, Abonia JP, Rothenberg ME, Furuta GT, Muir AB; CEGIR Investigator Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Jun;9(6):2549-2551. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.03.027.

Early life factors are associated with risk for eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosed in adulthood. Dellon ES, Shaheen O, Koutlas NT, Chang AO, Martin LJ, Rothenberg ME, Jensen ET. Dis Esophagus. 2021 Feb 10;34(2):doaa074. doi: 10.1093/dote/doaa074.

Effect of topical swallowed steroids on the bacterial and fungal esophageal microbiota in eosinophilic esophagitis. Benitez AJ, Tanes C, Mattei L, Hofstaedter CE, Kim DK, Gross J, Ruffner MA, Albenberg L, Spergel J, Bittinger K, Muir AB. Allergy. 2021 May;76(5):1549-1552. doi: 10.1111/all.14602. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Eosinophil Knockout Humans: Uncovering the Role of Eosinophils Through Eosinophil-Directed Biological Therapies. Jacobsen EA, Jackson DJ, Heffler E, Mathur SK, Bredenoord AJ, Pavord ID, Akuthota P, Roufosse F, Rothenberg ME. Annu Rev Immunol. 2021 Apr 26;39:719-757. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-093019-125918. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Review. Muir A, Falk GW. JAMA. 2021 Oct 5;326(13):1310-1318. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.14920.

Researchers affiliated with the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR) have published a new review paper examining eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disease. EoE is characterized by elevated eosinophils (a type of disease-fighting white blood cell) in the esophagus (the tube connecting the mouth to the stomach). It affects an estimated 34.4/100,000 people in Europe and North America, including both children and adults. To diagnose the disease and evaluate treatment efficacy, a doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end through a patient’s mouth, into the stomach, and sometimes into the upper intestine and collects tissue samples. In this paper, researchers discuss symptoms of the disease along with genetic and environmental factors associated with it. They also examine several current therapies, including proton pump inhibitors, topical steroid preparations, dietary therapy, and endoscopic dilation, and summarize recent systematic reviews of therapy trials.

Eosinophilic esophagitis may persist after discontinuation of oral immunotherapy. Hamant L, Freeman C, Garg S, Wright BL, Schroeder S. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Mar;126(3):299-302. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2020.12.007. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

How to approach adult patients with asymptomatic esophageal eosinophilia. Schreiner P, Biedermann L, Greuter T, Wright BL, Straumann A. Dis Esophagus. 2021 Jan 11;34(1):doaa105. doi: 10.1093/dote/doaa105.

Loss of Endothelial TSPAN12 Promotes Fibrostenotic Eosinophilic Esophagitis via Endothelial Cell-Fibroblast Crosstalk. Shoda T, Wen T, Caldwell JM, Ben-Baruch Morgenstern N, Osswald GA, Rochman M, Mack LE, Felton JM, Abonia JP, Arva NC, Atkins D, Bonis PA, Capocelli KE, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Leung J, Menard-Katcher PA, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Rudman Spergel AK, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Aceves SS, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR) Investigators Group. Gastroenterology. 2022 Feb;162(2):439-453. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.10.016. Epub 2021 Oct 21. PMID: 34687736; PMCID: PMC8792211.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, antigen-mediated immunologic disease that can progress to fibrostenosis, but the molecular pathogenesis of fibrostenotic EoE is not well understood. This study found that endothelial TSPAN12 contributes to fibrostenotic EoE and is the first molecular correlate of esophageal diameter. These findings provide new insight into previously underrecognized roles of the endothelium in disease pathogenesis. Anti–IL-13 therapy may improve fibrostenotic EoE through normalizing TSPAN12 levels.

Motivations, Barriers, and Outcomes of Patient-Reported Shared Decision Making in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Chang JW, Rubenstein JH, Mellinger JL, Kodroff E, Strobel MJ, Scott M, Mack D, Book W, Sable K, Kyle S, Paliana A, Dellon ES. Dig Dis Sci. 2021 Jun;66(6):1808-1817. doi: 10.1007/s10620-020-06438-5. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Moving FORWARD Toward Racial Equity in Food Allergy. Davis CM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Jul;9(7):2874-2875. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.04.066.

Noninvasive biomarkers identify eosinophilic esophagitis: A prospective longitudinal study in children. Wechsler JB, Ackerman SJ, Chehade M, Amsden K, Riffle ME, Wang MY, Du J, Kleinjan ML, Alumkal P, Gray E, Kim KA, Wershil BK, Kagalwalla AF. Allergy. 2021 Apr 27. doi: 10.1111/all.14874. Online ahead of print.

Patients with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders have lower in-hospital mortality rates related to COVID-19. Qeadan F, Chehade M, Tingey B, Egbert J, Dellon ES, Peterson KA. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Dec;9(12):4473-4476.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.09.022. Epub 2021 Sep 23. PMID: 34563741; PMCID: PMC8459462.

Little is known about eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) and COVID-19 outcomes. By reducing viral entry into cells, the mucosal responses of patients with EGID may protect against severe effects of COVID-19. In this study, researchers compared hospitalization rates, ventilator dependence, and death between patients with and without EGID. When compared with non–EGID COVID-19 positive patients, they found that EGID COVID-19 positive individuals stayed longer in the hospital, yet had lower rates of inpatient mortality. This analysis suggests that EGID may provide a protective effect against severe COVID-19 outcomes. In future studies, researchers plan to further explore the protective role of reduced expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 and the eosinophilic disease itself in COVID-19 mortality.

RNA sequencing identifies global transcriptional changes in peripheral CD4(+) cells during active oesophagitis and following epicutaneous immunotherapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis. Ruffner MA, Zhang Z, Maurer K, Muir AB, Cianferoni A, Sullivan KE, Spergel JM. Clin Transl Immunology. 2021 Jul 22;10(7):e1314. doi: 10.1002/cti2.1314. eCollection 2021.

Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Diet or Medication?. Chehade M, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Sep;9(9):3249-3256. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.07.029. PMID: 34507706.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease characterized by elevated eosinophils (white blood cells) in the esophagus (the tube connecting the mouth to the stomach). The prevalence of EoE is increasing in children and adults. As a chronic condition currently without a cure, EoE must be carefully managed to prevent complications, such as food impactions in the esophagus or narrowing of the lumen. In this paper, researchers discuss the current approaches for dietary and pharmacologic management of EoE and the need for future clinical trials to help tailor therapies to individual patients with this chronic disease.

Type 2 Immunity and Age Modify Gene Expression of Coronavirus-induced Disease 2019 Receptors in Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders. Chiang AWT, Duong LD, Shoda T, Nhu QM, Ruffner M, Hara T, Aaron B, Joplin E, Manresa MC, Abonia JP, Dellon ES, Hirano I, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME, Lewis NE, Muir AB, Aceves SS; CEGIR Investigator Group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2021 May 1;72(5):718-722. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003032.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are inflammatory conditions caused by chronic type 2 (T2) inflammation. In this study, researchers sought to better understand the impact of this T2 inflammation on susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). Researchers analyzed gene expression data in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, and in normal adults using publicly available datasets. They concluded that eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases are not risk factors for COVID-19. and that T2 immunity & pediatric age could be protective for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the GI tract.

Unsedated transnasal esophagoscopy with virtual reality distraction enables earlier monitoring of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Friedlander JA, Fleischer DM, Black JO, Levy M, Rothenberg ME, Smith C, Nguyen N, Pan Z, Furuta GT. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Sep;9(9):3494-3496. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.06.030. Epub 2021 Jul 2. PMID: 34224927; PMCID: PMC8459391.

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the esophagus often treated with an elimination diet, where patients avoid specific foods that are triggering the disease. The current standard of care for diagnosis and symptom monitoring requires repeated sedated endoscopy procedures over time. After the initial diagnostic endoscopy, many assessments may be needed to establish the correct diet. For patients, these repeated diagnostic procedures raise issues of risk, cost, and lost time from school and/or work. They also extend the time patients must wait to reintroduce foods. In this study, researchers seeking to address these concerns tested the use of an emerging technology, less invasive monitoring approach compared with standard endoscopy—unsedated transnasal esophagoscopy (TN-Eso) with virtual reality distraction. Although this was a pilot study involving only five patients, the researchers found that TN-Eso was well-tolerated and preferred by patients and families. Tests using the new technology detected the return of esophagitis as soon as two weeks after single-food exposure, suggesting that the timing of food reintroductions could be shortened by 50% to 75%, compared with the traditional endoscopies (which typically occur at 12-week intervals). Study authors say these findings support a shortened challenge period with the use of TN-Eso, which may lead to faster identification of a suitable treatment. The study also demonstrates that food allergen-induced eosinophilic esophagitis occurs within two weeks following exposure to the triggering food.

Variability in Practices of Compounding Budesonide for Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Joshi S, Rubenstein JH, Dellon ES, Worthing N, Stefanadis Z, Chang JW. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1336-1338. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001170.

A novel approach to conducting clinical trials in the community setting: utilizing patient-driven platforms and social media to drive web-based patient recruitment. Applequist J, Burroughs C, Ramirez A Jr, Merkel PA, Rothenberg ME, Trapnell B, Desnick RJ, Sahin M, Krischer JP. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2020 Mar 13;20(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s12874-020-00926-y.

AGA institute and the joint task force on allergy-immunology practice parameters clinical guidelines for the management of eosinophilic esophagitis. Hirano I, Chan ES, Rank MA, Sharaf RN, Stollman NH, Stukus DR, Wang K, Greenhawt M, Falck-Ytter YT; AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee; Joint Task Force on Allergy-Immunology Practice Parameters. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020 May;124(5):416-423. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2020.03.020.

Advancing patient care through the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Aceves S, Collins MH, Rothenberg ME, Furuta GT, Gonsalves N; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):28-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.012. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Antifibrotic Effects of the Thiazolidinediones in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pathologic Remodeling: A Preclinical Evaluation. Nhu QM, Hsieh L, Dohil L, Dohil R, Newbury RO, Kurten R, Moawad FJ, Aceves SS. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2020 Apr;11(4):e00164. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000164.

Approaches and Challenges to Management of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hirano I, Furuta GT. Gastroenterology. 2020 Mar;158(4):840-851. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.09.052. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Association Between Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort of Patients with Non-esophageal Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders. Pesek RD, Reed CC, Collins MH, Muir AB, Fulkerson PC, Menard-Katcher C, Falk GW, Kuhl J, Magier AZ, Ahmed FN, Demarshall M, Gupta A, Gross J, Ashorobi T, Carpenter CL, Krischer JP, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, Spergel JM, Gupta SK, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME, Dellon ES; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Dig Dis Sci. 2020 Jul;65(7):2024-2035. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05961-4. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Effectiveness and Safety of High- vs Low-Dose Swallowed Topical Steroids for Maintenance Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Multicenter Observational Study. Greuter T, Godat A, Ringel A, Almonte HS, Schupack D, Mendoza G, McCright-Gill T, Dellon ES, Hirano I, Alexander J, Chehade M, Safroneeva E, Bussmann C, Biedermann L, Schreiner P, Schoepfer AM, Straumann A, Katzka DA. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Aug 13:S1542-3565(20)31136-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.08.027. Online ahead of print.

Elimination diets for eosinophilic esophagitis: making the best choice. Chehade M, Brown S. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Jul;16(7):679-687. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2020.1801419. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Emerging therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis. Greuter T, Hirano I, Dellon ES. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.10.027. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

EoE disease monitoring: Where we are and where we are going. Godwin B, Wilkins B, Muir AB. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020 Mar;124(3):240-247. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2019.12.004. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Existing and Upcoming Therapies in an Age of Emerging Molecular and Personalized Medicine. Slack IF, Schwartz JT, Mukkada VA, Hottinger S, Abonia JP. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2020 Jun 6;20(8):30. doi: 10.1007/s11882-020-00928-2.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease below the belt. Pesek RD, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):87-89.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.10.013. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Eosinophils in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The Road to Fibrostenosis is Paved With Good Intentions. Doyle AD, Masuda MY, Kita H, Wright BL. Front Immunol. 2020 Dec 1;11:603295. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.603295. eCollection 2020.

Esophageal type 2 cytokine expression heterogeneity in eosinophilic esophagitis in a multisite cohort. Dunn JLM, Shoda T, Caldwell JM, Wen T, Aceves SS, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Leung J, Martin LJ, Menard-Katcher P, Rudman-Spergel AK, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jun;145(6):1629-1640.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.01.051. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

High Patient Disease Burden in a Cross-sectional, Multicenter Contact Registry Study of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases. Jensen ET, Aceves SS, Bonis PA, Bray K, Book W, Chehade M, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Katzka DA, Kyle S, Mack D, Kodroff E, Leung J, Mukkada VA, Scott M, Paliana A, Sable K, Spergel JM, Strobel MJ, Krischer J, Rothenberg ME, Abonia P; CEGIR Investigator group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Oct;71(4):524-529. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002817.

Mast Cell Infiltration Is Associated With Persistent Symptoms and Endoscopic Abnormalities Despite Resolution of Eosinophilia in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Bolton SM, Kagalwalla AF, Arva NC, Wang MY, Amsden K, Melin-Aldana H, Dellon ES, Bryce PJ, Wershil BK, Wechsler JB. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Feb;115(2):224-233. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000474.

Medical algorithm: Diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. Greuter T, Straumann A. Allergy. 2020 Mar;75(3):727-730. doi: 10.1111/all.14112. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Medical algorithm: Diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in children. Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn TA, Muir A, Liacouras CA. Allergy. 2020 Jun;75(6):1522-1524. doi: 10.1111/all.14188. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Modeling Epithelial Homeostasis and Reactive Epithelial Changes in Human and Murine Three-Dimensional Esophageal Organoids. Nakagawa H, Kasagi Y, Karakasheva TA, Hara T, Aaron B, Shimonosono M, Kijima T, Giroux V, Bailey D, Wilkins B, Abrams JA, Falk GW, Aceves SS, Spergel JM, Hamilton KE, Whelan KA, Muir AB. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2020 Mar;52(1):e106. doi: 10.1002/cpsc.106.

Molecular, endoscopic, histologic, and circulating biomarker-based diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis: Multi-site study. Shoda T, Wen T, Caldwell JM, Collins MH, Besse JA, Osswald GA, Abonia JP, Arva NC, Atkins D, Capocelli KE, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Sheridan RM, Rudman Spergel AK, Spergel JM, Wechsler JB, Yang GY, Aceves SS, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):255-269. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.007. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Persistent Basal Cell Hyperplasia Is Associated With Clinical and Endoscopic Findings in Patients With Histologically Inactive Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Whelan KA, Godwin BC, Wilkins B, Elci OU, Benitez A, DeMarshall M, Sharma M, Gross J, Klein-Szanto AJ, Liacouras CA, Dellon ES, Spergel JM, Falk GW, Muir AB, Nakagawa H. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Jun;18(7):1475-1482.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.08.055. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Technical review on the management of eosinophilic esophagitis: a report from the AGA institute and the joint task force on allergy-immunology practice parameters. Rank MA, Sharaf RN, Furuta GT, Aceves SS, Greenhawt M, Spergel JM, Falck-Ytter YT, Dellon ES; AGA Institute Electronic address: clinicalpractice@gastroorg; Joint Task Force on Allergy-Immunology Practice Parameters collaborators Electronic address: drdanawallace@gmailcom; AGA Institute; Joint Task Force on Allergy-Immunology Practice Parameters collaborators. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020 May;124(5):424-440.e17. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2020.03.021.

The genetic etiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Kottyan LC, Parameswaran S, Weirauch MT, Rothenberg ME, Martin LJ. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan;145(1):9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.013.

The potential for malignancy from atopic disorders and allergic inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Muir AB, Whelan KA, Dougherty MK, Aaron B, Navarre B, Aceves SS, Dellon ES, Jensen ET. Clin Exp Allergy. 2020 Feb;50(2):147-159. doi: 10.1111/cea.13537. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

The role of eosinophils in immunotherapy. Cafone J, Ruffner MA, Spergel JM. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Apr;20(2):329. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000617.

Unanswered questions in eosinophilic esophagitis. Nhu QM, Aceves SS. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020 Mar;124(3):227-228. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2019.12.003. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Validation of self-reported diagnosis of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders patients enrolled in the CEGIR contact registry. Hiremath G, Krischer JP, Rothenberg ME, Dellon ES. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2020 Nov 5:101555. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2020.10.001. Online ahead of print.

A Comparative Analysis of Eating Behavior of School-Aged Children with Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Their Caregivers' Quality of Life: Perspectives of Caregivers. Hiremath G, Rogers E, Kennedy E, Hemler J, Acra S. Dysphagia. 2019 Aug;34(4):567-574. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-09984-x. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

A Conceptual Approach to Understanding Treatment Response in Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Dellon ES, Gupta SK. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Oct;17(11):2149-2160. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.01.030. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Climbing New Mountains: How Antibodies Blocking α4β7 Integrins Tamed Eosinophilic Inflammation of the Intestinal Tract. Olbrich CL, Simerly L, de Zoeten EF, Furuta GT, Spencer LA. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Aug;64(8):2068-2071. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05706-3.

Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers: Advancing the Field of Eosinophilic GI Disorders Through Collaboration. Gupta SK, Falk GW, Aceves SS, Chehade M, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, Mukkuda VA, Peterson KA, Spergel J, Yang GY, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Gastroenterology. 2019 Mar;156(4):838-842. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.057. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Cost-effective care in eosinophilic esophagitis. Dellon ES. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 Aug;123(2):166-172. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2019.04.010. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Editorial: the evolving epidemiology of EoE-up, up, and away?. Dellon ES. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Jun;49(11):1448-1449. doi: 10.1111/apt.15252.

Eosinophil progenitor levels correlate with tissue pathology in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Schwartz JT, Morris DW, Collins MH, Rothenberg ME, Fulkerson PC. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Mar;143(3):1221-1224.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.10.036. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Eosinophilic esophagitis during sublingual and oral allergen immunotherapy. Cafone J, Capucilli P, Hill DA, Spergel JM. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Aug;19(4):350-357. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000537.

Eosinophilic esophagitis: early diagnosis is the key. Muir AB, Brown-Whitehorn T, Godwin B, Cianferoni A. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2019 Aug 15;12:391-399. doi: 10.2147/CEG.S175061. eCollection 2019.

Epithelial HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis regulates barrier dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis. Masterson JC, Biette KA, Hammer JA, Nguyen N, Capocelli KE, Saeedi BJ, Harris RF, Fernando SD, Hosford LB, Kelly CJ, Campbell EL, Ehrentraut SF, Ahmed FN, Nakagawa H, Lee JJ, McNamee EN, Glover LE, Colgan SP, Furuta GT. J Clin Invest. 2019 Jul 2;129(8):3224-3235. doi: 10.1172/JCI126744. eCollection 2019 Jul 2.

Epithelial-stromal crosstalk and fibrosis in eosinophilic esophagitis. Muir AB, Wang JX, Nakagawa H. J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jan;54(1):10-18. doi: 10.1007/s00535-018-1498-3. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Feeding difficulties in children with non-IgE-mediated food allergic gastrointestinal disorders. Chehade M, Meyer R, Beauregard A. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 Jun;122(6):603-609. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2019.03.020. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis might reflect epithelial lysyl oxidase induction by fibroblast-derived TNF-α. Kasagi Y, Dods K, Wang JX, Chandramouleeswaran PM, Benitez AJ, Gambanga F, Kluger J, Ashorobi T, Gross J, Tobias JW, Klein-Szanto AJ, Spergel JM, Cianferoni A, Falk GW, Whelan KA, Nakagawa H, Muir AB. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Jul;144(1):171-182. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.10.067. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Histologic similarities in children with eosinophilic esophagitis and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. Nguyen N, Baumgarten A, Wright BL, Capocelli KE, Pan Z, Lee JJ, Furuta GT, Masterson JC. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Mar;143(3):1237-1240.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.10.047. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

How to Advance Research, Education, and Training in the Study of Rare Diseases. Groft SC, Gopal-Srivastava R, Dellon ES, Gupta SK. Gastroenterology. 2019 Oct;157(4):917-921. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.08.010. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Illuminating Elimination Diets: Controversies Regarding Dietary Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Cotton CC, Durban R, Dellon ES. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Jun;64(6):1401-1408. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05602-w.

Immunology of the ancestral differences in eosinophilic esophagitis. Kottyan L, Spergel JM, Cianferoni A. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 May;122(5):443-444. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.10.026. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Increasing Rates of Diagnosis, Substantial Co-Occurrence, and Variable Treatment Patterns of Eosinophilic Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, and Colitis Based on 10-Year Data Across a Multicenter Consortium. Pesek RD, Reed CC, Muir AB, Fulkerson PC, Menard-Katcher C, Falk GW, Kuhl J, Martin EK, Magier AZ, Ahmed F, Demarshall M, Gupta A, Gross J, Ashorobi T, Carpenter CL, Krischer JP, Gonsalves N, Spergel JM, Gupta SK, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME, Dellon ES; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun;114(6):984-994. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000228.

Mechanisms of gastrointestinal allergic disorders. Azouz NP, Rothenberg ME. J Clin Invest. 2019 Mar 11;129(4):1419-1430. doi: 10.1172/JCI124604. eCollection 2019 Mar 11.

Minimally symptomatic patients with eosinophilic esophagitis should still be actively treated-PRO. Muir A, Moore H, Spergel JM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 Jun;122(6):572-573. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.09.468. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

New Developments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Nhu QM, Moawad FJ. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;17(1):48-62. doi: 10.1007/s11938-019-00216-7.

No Maintenance, No Gain in Long-term Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Dellon ES. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Feb;17(3):397-399. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.07.038.

Overestimation of the diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis with reliance on billing codes. Muir AB, Jensen ET, Wechsler JB, Menard-Katcher P, Falk GW, Aceves SS, Furuta GT, Dellon ES, Rothenberg ME, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 Sep-Oct;7(7):2434-2436. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.03.020. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Prevalence of eosinophilic colitis and the diagnoses associated with colonic eosinophilia. DiTommaso LA, Rosenberg CE, Eby MD, Tasco A, Collins MH, Lyles JL, Putnam PE, Mukkada VA, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 May;143(5):1928-1930.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.12.1002. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Role of genetics, environment, and their interactions in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis. Lyles J, Rothenberg M. Curr Opin Immunol. 2019 Oct;60:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2019.04.004. Epub 2019 May 25.

Screening children for eosinophilic esophagitis: allergic and other risk factors. Ruffner MA, Capucilli P, Hill DA, Spergel JM. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2019 Apr;15(4):315-318. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2019.1579643. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

The Salivary Microbiome Is Altered in Children With Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Correlates With Disease Activity. Hiremath G, Shilts MH, Boone HH, Correa H, Acra S, Tovchigrechko A, Rajagopala SV, Das SR. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun;10(6):e00039. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000039.

Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation augments esophageal barrier integrity. Ruffner MA, Song L, Maurer K, Shi L, Carroll MC, Wang JX, Muir AB, Spergel JM, Sullivan KE. Allergy. 2019 Dec;74(12):2449-2460. doi: 10.1111/all.13968. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Use of hPSC-derived 3D organoids and mouse genetics to define the roles of YAP in the development of the esophagus. Bailey DD, Zhang Y, van Soldt BJ, Jiang M, Suresh S, Nakagawa H, Rustgi AK, Aceves SS, Cardoso WV, Que J. Development. 2019 Dec 4;146(23):dev178855. doi: 10.1242/dev.178855.

A Review of Tertiary Referrals for Management of Pediatric Esophageal Eosinophilia. Godwin B, Liacouras C, Mehta V, Eisenberg J, Agawu A, Brown-Whitehorn T, Ruffner MA, Verma R, Cianferoni A, Spergel JM, Muir AB. Front Pediatr. 2018 Jun 20;6:173. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00173. eCollection 2018.

Alignment of parent- and child-reported outcomes and histology in eosinophilic esophagitis across multiple CEGIR sites. Aceves SS, King E, Collins MH, Yang GY, Capocelli KE, Abonia JP, Atkins D, Bonis PA, Carpenter CL, Dellon ES, Eby MD, Falk GW, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Kocher K, Krischer JP, Leung J, Lipscomb J, Menard-Katcher P, Mukkada VA, Pan Z, Spergel JM, Sun Q, Wershil BK, Rothenberg ME, Furuta GT; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):130-138.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.014. Epub 2018 May 29.

Allergic components of eosinophilic esophagitis. Spergel J, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.001.

Assessing Adherence and Barriers to Long-Term Elimination Diet Therapy in Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Wang R, Hirano I, Doerfler B, Zalewski A, Gonsalves N, Taft T. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Jul;63(7):1756-1762. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5045-0. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Authors' response. Spergel JM, Dellon ES, Liacouras CA, Hirano I, Molina-Infante J, Bredenoord AJ, Furuta GT. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Dec;121(6):747-748. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.10.015. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Biological therapies for eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Wechsler JB, Hirano I. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):24-31.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.018. Epub 2018 May 31.

Clinical Implications of Pediatric Colonic Eosinophilia. Mark J, Fernando SD, Masterson JC, Pan Z, Capocelli KE, Furuta GT, de Zoeten EF. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 May;66(5):760-766. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001784.

Clinical tolerance in eosinophilic esophagitis. Ruffner MA, Brown-Whitehorn TF, Verma R, Cianferoni A, Gober L, Shuker M, Muir AB, Liacouras CA, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Mar-Apr;6(2):661-663. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.06.035. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Commentary: Individuals affected by Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Have Complex Unmet Needs and Experience Barriers to Care. Hiremath G, Dellon ES. J Rare Dis Res Treat. 2018;3(2):34-36. doi: 10.29245/2572-9411/2018/2.1155. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Long-term Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis- Current Concepts and Perspectives for Steroid Use. Greuter T, Alexander JA, Straumann A, Katzka DA. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2018 Dec;9(12):e212. doi: 10.1038/s41424-018-0074-8.

Emerging drugs for eosinophilic esophagitis. Pesek RD, Gupta SK. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2018 Jun;23(2):173-183. doi: 10.1080/14728214.2018.1483335. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Environmental factors and eosinophilic esophagitis. Jensen ET, Dellon ES. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.04.015. Epub 2018 May 2.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Wright BL, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1799-1801. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.06.019.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis Is a Late Manifestation of the Allergic March. Hill DA, Grundmeier RW, Ramos M, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1528-1533. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.05.010. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis Reference Score Accurately Identifies Disease Activity and Treatment Effects in Children. Wechsler JB, Bolton SM, Amsden K, Wershil BK, Hirano I, Kagalwalla AF. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jul;16(7):1056-1063. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.12.019. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis and the Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases: Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Steinbach EC, Hernandez M, Dellon ES. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1483-1495. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.06.012. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: an Important Comorbid Condition of Asthma?. Durrani SR, Mukkada VA, Guilbert TW. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Aug;55(1):56-64. doi: 10.1007/s12016-018-8670-7.

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis and Colitis: Not Yet Ready for the Big Leagues. Zevit N, Furuta GT. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Jul;67(1):1-2. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001998.

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology. Collins MH, Capocelli K, Yang GY. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 Jan 15;4:261. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2017.00261. eCollection 2017.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) genetic susceptibility is mediated by synergistic interactions between EoE-specific and general atopic disease loci. Martin LJ, He H, Collins MH, Abonia JP, Biagini Myers JM, Eby M, Johansson H, Kottyan LC, Khurana Hershey GK, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 May;141(5):1690-1698. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.09.046. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Eosinophilic esophagitis: Time to classify into endotypes?. Ferguson AE, Fulkerson PC. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):71-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.04.025. Epub 2018 May 8.

Eosinophilic esophagitis: pathophysiology and its clinical implications. Inage E, Furuta GT, Menard-Katcher C, Masterson JC. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Nov 1;315(5):G879-G886. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00174.2018. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis endotype classification by molecular, clinical, and histopathological analyses: a cross-sectional study. Shoda T, Wen T, Aceves SS, Abonia JP, Atkins D, Bonis PA, Caldwell JM, Capocelli KE, Carpenter CL, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Eby MD, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Falk GW, Hirano I, Menard-Katcher P, Kuhl JT, Krischer JP, Leung J, Mukkada VA, Spergel JM, Trimarchi MP, Yang GY, Zimmermann N, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME; Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jul;3(7):477-488. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30096-7. Epub 2018 May 3.

Epidemiology and Natural History of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Dellon ES, Hirano I. Gastroenterology. 2018 Jan;154(2):319-332.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.067. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Epithelial acid imbalance in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Hill DA, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Dec;142(6):1757-1758. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.09.026. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Epithelial origin of eosinophilic esophagitis. Rochman M, Azouz NP, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):10-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.008.

Esophageal 3D Culture Systems as Modeling Tools in Esophageal Epithelial Pathobiology and Personalized Medicine. Whelan KA, Muir AB, Nakagawa H. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 31;5(4):461-478. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.01.011. eCollection 2018.

Food allergen triggers are increased in children with the TSLP risk allele and eosinophilic esophagitis. Fahey LM, Chandramouleeswaran PM, Guan S, Benitez AJ, Furuta GT, Aceves SS, Wang ML, Liacouras CA, Muir AB, Sleiman PM, Hakonarson H, Spergel JM, Cianferoni A. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 6;9(3):139. doi: 10.1038/s41424-018-0003-x.

Histologic improvement after 6 weeks of dietary elimination for eosinophilic esophagitis may be insufficient to determine efficacy. Philpott H, Dellon E. Asia Pac Allergy. 2018 Apr 25;8(2):e20. doi: 10.5415/apallergy.2018.8.e20. eCollection 2018 Apr.

Increased GATA-3 and T-bet expression in eosinophilic esophagitis versus gastroesophageal reflux disease. Wright BL, Nguyen N, Shim KP, Masterson JC, Jacobsen EA, Ochkur SI, Lee JJ, Furuta GT. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 May;141(5):1919-1921.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.12.993. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Individuals affected by eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders have complex unmet needs and frequently experience unique barriers to care. Hiremath G, Kodroff E, Strobel MJ, Scott M, Book W, Reidy C, Kyle S, Mack D, Sable K, Abonia P, Spergel J, Gupta SK, Furuta TG, Rothenberg ME, Dellon ES. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2018 Oct;42(5):483-493. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2018.03.003. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Is eosinophilic esophagitis a member of the atopic march?. Hill DA, Spergel JM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Feb;120(2):113-114. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2017.10.003.

Latest Insights on the Relationship Between Symptoms and Biologic Findings in Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Safroneeva E, Straumann A, Schoepfer AM. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2018 Jan;28(1):35-45. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2017.08.001.

Management of Esophageal Food Impaction Varies Among Gastroenterologists and Affects Identification of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hiremath G, Vaezi MF, Gupta SK, Acra S, Dellon ES. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Jun;63(6):1428-1437. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-4972-0. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

New Developments in the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Monitoring of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Patel RV, Hirano I. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar;16(1):15-26. doi: 10.1007/s11938-018-0167-1.

New developments in patients with eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases presented at the CEGIR/TIGERS Symposium at the 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Meeting. Spergel JM, Aceves SS, Kliewer K, Gonsalves N, Chehade M, Wechsler JB, Groetch M, Friedlander J, Dellon ES, Book W, Hirano I, Muir AB, Cianferoni A, Spencer L, Liacouras CA, Cheng E, Kottyan L, Wen T, Platts-Mills T, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.005. Epub 2018 May 24.

Nonesophageal Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders: Clinical Care and Future Directions. Naramore S, Gupta SK. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Sep;67(3):318-321. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002040.

Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. O'Shea KM, Aceves SS, Dellon ES, Gupta SK, Spergel JM, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME. Gastroenterology. 2018 Jan;154(2):333-345. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.065. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Endotypes: Are We Closer to Predicting Treatment Response?. Ferguson AE, Mukkada VA, Fulkerson PC. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Aug;55(1):43-55. doi: 10.1007/s12016-017-8658-8.

Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: updates for the primary care setting. Ruffner MA, Spergel JM. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2018 Dec;30(6):829-836. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000698.

Phenotypic Characterization of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Large Multicenter Patient Population from the Consortium for Food Allergy Research. Chehade M, Jones SM, Pesek RD, Burks AW, Vickery BP, Wood RA, Leung DYM, Furuta GT, Fleischer DM, Henning AK, Dawson P, Lindblad RW, Sicherer SH, Abonia JP, Sherrill JD, Sampson HA, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1534-1544.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.05.038. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Revisiting the NIH Taskforce on the Research needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (RE-TREAD). Khoury P, Akuthota P, Ackerman SJ, Arron JR, Bochner BS, Collins MH, Kahn JE, Fulkerson PC, Gleich GJ, Gopal-Srivastava R, Jacobsen EA, Leiferman KM, Francesca LS, Mathur SK, Minnicozzi M, Prussin C, Rothenberg ME, Roufosse F, Sable K, Simon D, Simon HU, Spencer LA, Steinfeld J, Wardlaw AJ, Wechsler ME, Weller PF, Klion AD. J Leukoc Biol. 2018 Jul;104(1):69-83. doi: 10.1002/JLB.5MR0118-028R. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Summary of the updated international consensus diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis: AGREE conference. Spergel JM, Dellon ES, Liacouras CA, Hirano I, Molina-Infante J, Bredenoord AJ, Furuta GT; participants of AGREE. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Sep;121(3):281-284. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.05.035. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

TGF-β1 alters esophageal epithelial barrier function by attenuation of claudin-7 in eosinophilic esophagitis. Nguyen N, Fernando SD, Biette KA, Hammer JA, Capocelli KE, Kitzenberg DA, Glover LE, Colgan SP, Furuta GT, Masterson JC. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 Mar;11(2):415-426. doi: 10.1038/mi.2017.72. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

The Esophageal Organoid System Reveals Functional Interplay Between Notch and Cytokines in Reactive Epithelial Changes. Kasagi Y, Chandramouleeswaran PM, Whelan KA, Tanaka K, Giroux V, Sharma M, Wang J, Benitez AJ, DeMarshall M, Tobias JW, Hamilton KE, Falk GW, Spergel JM, Klein-Szanto AJ, Rustgi AK, Muir AB, Nakagawa H. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 3;5(3):333-352. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2017.12.013. eCollection 2018 Mar.

The Occasional Ebb and Flow between Eosinophilic Esophagitis and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy. Atkins D. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Mar-Apr;6(2):651-652. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.11.011.

The antiprotease SPINK7 serves as an inhibitory checkpoint for esophageal epithelial inflammatory responses. Azouz NP, Ynga-Durand MA, Caldwell JM, Jain A, Rochman M, Fischesser DM, Ray LM, Bedard MC, Mingler MK, Forney C, Eilerman M, Kuhl JT, He H, Biagini Myers JM, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Khurana Hershey GK, Kottyan LC, Wen T, Martin LJ, Rothenberg ME. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Jun 6;10(444):eaap9736. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap9736.

The atopic march: Critical evidence and clinical relevance. Hill DA, Spergel JM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Feb;120(2):131-137. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2017.10.037.

The role of maintenance therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis: who, why, and how?. Philpott H, Dellon ES. J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb;53(2):165-171. doi: 10.1007/s00535-017-1397-z. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Updated International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Proceedings of the AGREE Conference. Dellon ES, Liacouras CA, Molina-Infante J, Furuta GT, Spergel JM, Zevit N, Spechler SJ, Attwood SE, Straumann A, Aceves SS, Alexander JA, Atkins D, Arva NC, Blanchard C, Bonis PA, Book WM, Capocelli KE, Chehade M, Cheng E, Collins MH, Davis CM, Dias JA, Di Lorenzo C, Dohil R, Dupont C, Falk GW, Ferreira CT, Fox A, Gonsalves NP, Gupta SK, Katzka DA, Kinoshita Y, Menard-Katcher C, Kodroff E, Metz DC, Miehlke S, Muir AB, Mukkada VA, Murch S, Nurko S, Ohtsuka Y, Orel R, Papadopoulou A, Peterson KA, Philpott H, Putnam PE, Richter JE, Rosen R, Rothenberg ME, Schoepfer A, Scott MM, Shah N, Sheikh J, Souza RF, Strobel MJ, Talley NJ, Vaezi MF, Vandenplas Y, Vieira MC, Walker MM, Wechsler JB, Wershil BK, Wen T, Yang GY, Hirano I, Bredenoord AJ. Gastroenterology. 2018 Oct;155(4):1022-1033.e10. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.009. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

What Is the Relationship Between Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) and Aeroallergens? Implications for Allergen Immunotherapy. Egan M, Atkins D. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2018 Jun 16;18(8):43. doi: 10.1007/s11882-018-0798-2.

Aeroallergens in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Significant Triggers or Noise in the System?. Atkins D. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jan;64(1):1-2. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001268.

Autophagy mediates epithelial cytoprotection in eosinophilic oesophagitis. Whelan KA, Merves JF, Giroux V, Tanaka K, Guo A, Chandramouleeswaran PM, Benitez AJ, Dods K, Que J, Masterson JC, Fernando SD, Godwin BC, Klein-Szanto AJ, Chikwava K, Ruchelli ED, Hamilton KE, Muir AB, Wang ML, Furuta GT, Falk GW, Spergel JM, Nakagawa H. Gut. 2017 Jul;66(7):1197-1207. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310341. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Clarifying misunderstandings and misinterpretations about proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia. Molina-Infante J, Hirano I, Spechler SJ; PPI-REE Task Force of the European Society of Eosinophilic Oesophagitis (EUREOS). Gut. 2017 Jun;66(6):1173-1174. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312851. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel. Wen T, Rothenberg ME. Front Med (Lausanne). 2017 Jul 14;4:108. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2017.00108. eCollection 2017.

Creating a multi-center rare disease consortium - the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). Cheng K, Gupta SK, Kantor S, Kuhl JT, Aceves SS, Bonis PA, Capocelli KE, Carpenter C, Chehade M, Collins MH, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Gopal-Srivastava R, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, King EC, Leung J, Krischer JP, Mukkada VA, Schoepfer A, Spergel JM, Straumann A, Yang GY, Furuta GT, Rothenberg ME. Transl Sci Rare Dis. 2017 Dec 18;2(3-4):141-155. doi: 10.3233/TRD-170016.

Diet and Stress in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Case C, Furuta GT, Atkins D, Pan Z, Robinson J. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Sep;65(3):281-284. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001481.

Dilation of Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Adverse Events and Short-term Outcomes. Menard-Katcher C, Furuta GT, Kramer RE. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 May;64(5):701-706. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001336.

Effects of allergen sensitization on response to therapy in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. Pesek RD, Rettiganti M, O'Brien E, Beckwith S, Daniel C, Luo C, Scurlock AM, Chandler P, Levy RA, Perry TT, Kennedy JL, Chervinskiy S, Vonlanthen M, Casteel H, Fiedorek SC, Gibbons T, Jones SM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017 Aug;119(2):177-183. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2017.06.006. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Primary Disease of the Esophageal Mucosa. Abonia JP, Spergel JM, Cianferoni A. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jul-Aug;5(4):951-955. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.02.004. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Eosinophilic esophagitis phenotypes: Ready for prime time?. Atkins D, Furuta GT, Liacouras CA, Spergel JM. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 Jun;28(4):312-319. doi: 10.1111/pai.12715. Epub 2017 May 4.

Influence of Age and Eosinophilic Esophagitis on Esophageal Distensibility in a Pediatric Cohort. Menard-Katcher C, Benitez AJ, Pan Z, Ahmed FN, Wilkins BJ, Capocelli KE, Liacouras CA, Verma R, Spergel JM, Furuta GT, Muir AB. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017 Sep;112(9):1466-1473. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2017.131. Epub 2017 May 16.

Lack of Knowledge and Low Readiness for Health Care Transition in Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis. Eluri S, Book WM, Kodroff E, Strobel MJ, Gebhart JH, Jones PD, Menard-Katcher P, Ferris ME, Dellon ES. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jul;65(1):53-57. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001415.

Management of refractory eosinophilic oesophagitis. Dellon ES. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Aug;14(8):479-490. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.56. Epub 2017 May 24.

Newly developed and validated eosinophilic esophagitis histology scoring system and evidence that it outperforms peak eosinophil count for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Collins MH, Martin LJ, Alexander ES, Boyd JT, Sheridan R, He H, Pentiuk S, Putnam PE, Abonia JP, Mukkada VA, Franciosi JP, Rothenberg ME. Dis Esophagus. 2017 Feb 1;30(3):1-8. doi: 10.1111/dote.12470.

Novel immunologic mechanisms in eosinophilic esophagitis. Caldwell JM, Paul M, Rothenberg ME. Curr Opin Immunol. 2017 Oct;48:114-121. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2017.08.006. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Propofol Use in Pediatric Patients With Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Mehta P, Sundaram SS, Furuta GT, Pan Z, Atkins D, Markowitz S. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Apr;64(4):546-549. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001291.

Proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia: too early to change clinical practice. Muir AB, Wang ML, Metz D, Falk G, Markowitz J, Spergel JM, Liacouras CA. Gut. 2017 May;66(5):979-980. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312601. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Sticky Steroids: In Search of an Approved Treatment for Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Nguyen N, Furuta GT, Menard-Katcher C. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb;64(2):172-173. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001326.

The National Biome Initiative: An allergy perspective. Furuta GT, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Apr;139(4):1131-1134. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.008. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

The Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric Patients with IgE-Mediated Food Allergy. Hill DA, Dudley JW, Spergel JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Mar-Apr;5(2):369-375. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2016.11.020. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Toward More Efficient Dietary Elimination Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The Fantastic 4?. Eluri S, Dellon ES. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov;15(11):1668-1670. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.07.022. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

White Paper AGA: Drug Development for Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hirano I, Spechler S, Furuta G, Dellon ES. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Aug;15(8):1173-1183. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.03.016. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

2015 David Y. Graham Lecture: The First Two Decades Of Eosinophilic Esophagitis-From Acid Reflux To Food Allergy. Hirano I. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun;111(6):770-6. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.136. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Advances in the endoscopic evaluation of eosinophilic esophagitis. Kia L, Hirano I. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul;32(4):325-31. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000278.

Deeper Than the Epithelium: Role of Matrix and Fibroblasts in Pediatric and Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Nguyen N, Furuta GT, Masterson JC. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Aug;63(2):168-9. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001183.

Diets for diagnosis and management of food allergy: The role of the dietitian in eosinophilic esophagitis in adults and children. Venter C, Fleischer DM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Nov;117(5):468-471. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2016.08.003. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Eosinophil progenitor levels are increased in patients with active pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Morris DW, Stucke EM, Martin LJ, Abonia JP, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Rothenberg ME, Fulkerson PC. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Sep;138(3):915-918.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.03.027. Epub 2016 May 16.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis-Associated Chemical and Mechanical Microenvironment Shapes Esophageal Fibroblast Behavior. Muir AB, Dods K, Henry SJ, Benitez AJ, Lee D, Whelan KA, DeMarshall M, Hammer DA, Falk G, Wells RG, Spergel J, Nakagawa H, Wang ML. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Aug;63(2):200-9. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001100.

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Affect More Than Just the Esophagus. Gonsalves N, Furuta GT, Atkins D. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Jan;62(1):1-2. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000993.

Eosinophilic esophagitis: search for noninvasive techniques for long-term monitoring. Watts A, Alexander JA, Gupta SK. Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Feb;83(2):307-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2015.07.006.

Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome. Rosenberg HF, Masterson JC, Furuta GT. J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Nov;100(5):881-888. doi: 10.1189/jlb.3RI0416-202R. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Long-term assessment of esophageal remodeling in patients with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis treated with topical corticosteroids. Rajan J, Newbury RO, Anilkumar A, Dohil R, Broide DH, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan;137(1):147-156.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.045. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Mechanisms of Disease of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Davis BP, Rothenberg ME. Annu Rev Pathol. 2016 May 23;11:365-93. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-012615-044241. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Microbiome and its impact on gastrointestinal atopy. Muir AB, Benitez AJ, Dods K, Spergel JM, Fillon SA. Allergy. 2016 Sep;71(9):1256-63. doi: 10.1111/all.12943. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Narrow-caliber esophagus of eosinophilic esophagitis: difficult to define, resistant to remedy. Carlson DA, Hirano I. Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Jun;83(6):1149-50. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2016.01.034.

Non-IgE-mediated food allergy syndromes. Ruffner MA, Spergel JM. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Nov;117(5):452-454. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2016.04.014. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE). Chandramouleeswaran PM, Shen D, Lee AJ, Benitez A, Dods K, Gambanga F, Wilkins BJ, Merves J, Noah Y, Toltzis S, Yearley JH, Spergel JM, Nakagawa H, Malefyt Rd, Muir AB, Wang ML. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 18;11(3):e0150968. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150968. eCollection 2016.

Proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia: an entity challenging current diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic oesophagitis. Molina-Infante J, Bredenoord AJ, Cheng E, Dellon ES, Furuta GT, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Katzka DA, Moawad FJ, Rothenberg ME, Schoepfer A, Spechler SJ, Wen T, Straumann A, Lucendo AJ; PPI-REE Task Force of the European Society of Eosinophilic Oesophagitis (EUREOS). Gut. 2016 Mar;65(3):524-31. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310991. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Rigid substrate induces esophageal smooth muscle hypertrophy and eosinophilic esophagitis fibrotic gene expression. Tkachenko E, Rawson R, La E, Doherty TA, Baum R, Cavagnero K, Miyanohara A, Dohil R, Kurten RC, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr;137(4):1270-1272.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.09.020. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?. Kliewer KL, Venter C, Cassin AM, Abonia JP, Aceves SS, Bonis PA, Dellon ES, Falk GW, Furuta GT, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Kagalwalla A, Leung J, Mukkada VA, Spergel JM, Rothenberg ME. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr;137(4):1011-1014. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.10.040. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Substantial Variability in Biopsy Practice Patterns Among Gastroenterologists for Suspected Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders. Dellon ES, Collins MH, Bonis PA, Leung J, Capocelli KE, Dohil R, Falk GW, Furuta GT, Menard-Katcher C, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Hiremath GS, Kagalwalla AF, Wershil BK, Liacouras CA, Muir AB, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Schoepfer AM, Straumann A, Wo JM, Yang GY, Rothenberg ME, Gonsalves N. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Dec;14(12):1842-1844. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.04.025. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

TGF-β1-induced PAI-1 contributes to a profibrotic network in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Rawson R, Yang T, Newbury RO, Aquino M, Doshi A, Bell B, Broide DH, Dohil R, Kurten R, Aceves SS. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Sep;138(3):791-800.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.02.028. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

The Immunologic Mechanisms of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Hill DA, Spergel JM. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Feb;16(2):9. doi: 10.1007/s11882-015-0592-3.

The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils. Wen T, Rothenberg ME. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Oct;4(5):10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015.

The partnership of patient advocacy groups and clinical investigators in the rare diseases clinical research network. Merkel PA, Manion M, Gopal-Srivastava R, Groft S, Jinnah HA, Robertson D, Krischer JP; Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 May 18;11(1):66. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0445-8.

Topical glucocorticoid vs. diet therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis: the need for better treatment options. Imam T, Gupta SK. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug;12(8):797-9. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2016.1191947. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis. Leung J, Beukema KR, Shen AH. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct;29(5):709-720. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.09.012. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

An allergist's perspective to the evaluation of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Spergel JM. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct;29(5):771-781. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.06.011. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies. Kia L, Hirano I. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jul;12(7):379-386. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2015.75. Epub 2015 May 19.

Environmental and infectious factors in eosinophilic esophagitis. Jensen ET, Dellon ES. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct;29(5):721-729. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Furuta GT, Katzka DA. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 22;373(17):1640-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1502863.

Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal Disorders: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases, Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Parasitic Infections. Mehta P, Furuta GT. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2015 Aug;35(3):413-37. doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2015.04.003. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

From genetics to treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. Cianferoni A, Spergel JM. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Oct;15(5):417-25. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000200.

Inflammation-associated microbiota in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Benitez AJ, Hoffmann C, Muir AB, Dods KK, Spergel JM, Bushman FD, Wang ML. Microbiome. 2015 Jun 1;3:23. doi: 10.1186/s40168-015-0085-6. eCollection 2015.

Management of proton pump inhibitor responsive-esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis: controversies in treatment approaches. Kochar B, Dellon ES. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;9(11):1359-69. doi: 10.1586/17474124.2015.1088384. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis. Rothenberg ME. Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1143-57. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic oesophagitis: more similarities than differences. Eluri S, Dellon ES. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul;31(4):309-15. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000185.

Recent advances in the pathological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis. Cianferoni A, Spergel JM, Muir A. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;9(12):1501-10. doi: 10.1586/17474124.2015.1094372. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Recognition and Assessment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The Development of New Clinical Outcome Metrics. Nguyen N, Furuta GT, Menard-Katcher C. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2015 Oct;11(10):670-4.

The TGFβ1 Promoter SNP C-509T and Food Sensitization Promote Esophageal Remodeling in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Rawson R, Anilkumar A, Newbury RO, Bafna V, Aquino M, Palmquist J, Hoffman HM, Mueller JL, Dohil R, Broide DH, Aceves SS. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 14;10(12):e0144651. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144651. eCollection 2015.

Therapeutic strategies in eosinophilic esophagitis: Induction, maintenance and refractory disease. Sodikoff J, Hirano I. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct;29(5):829-839. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.09.002. Epub 2015 Sep 11.